VW Touran manuals

Volkswagen Touran Service Manual: Cross-Section of a Radial Ply Tire

Cross-Section of a Radial Ply Tire

1 -  Tread Block
2 -  Tread Groove
3 -  Tread
4 -  Nylon Ply
5 -  Belt Layers
Consists mostly of steel
6 -  Bead Bundle
Consists of steel wires vulcanized into rubber
Make sure secure seating of the tire on the rim
7 -  Bead Filler
8 -  Wheel Flange Protection
Protects the rim and tire from abrasion due to, for example, contact with the curb.
Tires with flange protection are designated by the abbreviation MFS.

 
The nylon ply -4-, belts -5-, bead cores -6- and bead reinforcements -7- make up the carcass. The carcass is the "load-bearing structure" of the tire.
Overview - Radial Ply Tire
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Other materials:

Two-Part HS Optimum Plus Clear Coat
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Warning lamp and coolant temperature display
Fig. 176 Coolant temperature display in instrument cluster: Ⓐ cold; Ⓑ normal; Ⓒ warning First read and observe the introductory information and safety warnings In normal driving conditions, the needle will be in the middle section of the scale. The temperature may also rise when th ...

A/C System, Operating after Charging
  Caution If it is suspected that chemicals were added to the refrigerant circuit to seal leaks, do not connect the A/C service station and do not extract the refrigerant. ...

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