VW Touran manuals

Volkswagen Touran Service Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid
  Physical Principles
When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission
  Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
   
    A/C Technology Basic Principles
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    Pressure and Boiling Point
    The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

    Other materials:

    Volkswagen Touran Service Manual. Wear Spots
    A wear spot is a flat spot on the tread of the tires that can be caused by extreme braking maneuvers on subsurface such as asphalt. At the same time a tire during the braking maneuver is rubbed at selective points which causes a ti ...

    Volkswagen Touran Service Manual. Wheel, Balancing on Stationary Balancing Machine
    Before beginning balancing, the following requirements must be fulfilled. The tire pressure must be OK. The tire profile must not be worn on one side. The tire profile must be at least 4 mm. ...

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