VW Touran manuals

Volkswagen Touran Service Manual: Physical Principles

The four known states of water also apply to air conditioning system refrigerants.
1 -  gaseous (invisible)
2 -  vapor
3 -  fluid
4 -  solid
  Physical Principles
When water is heated in a vessel (heat absorption), water vapor can be seen to rise. If the vapor is further heated through heat absorption, the visible vapor turns into invisible gas. The process is reversible. The warmth is extracted from gaseous water, vapor forms first, then water and then ice.
A -  Heat absorption
B -  Heat emission
  Physical Principles

Heat Transfer

Every substance consists of a mass of moving molecules. The fast moving molecules of a warmer substance give off some of their energy to the cooler and thus slower molecules. As a result, the molecular motion of the warmer substance slows down and that of the colder substance is accelerated. This process continues until the molecules of both substances are moving at the same speed. They are then at the same temperature and no further heat exchange takes place.
   
A/C Technology Basic Principles
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Pressure and Boiling Point
The boiling point given in tables for a liquid is always referenced to an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar (14.5 psi). If the pressure acting on a fluid changes, its boi ...

Other materials:

Infrared Dryer -VAS6878
Definition: Infrared Dryer -VAS6878- Product Description: The infrared dryer is used to dry paste, filler, base paint, top coats and clear coats on vertical and horizontal surfaces. ...

Tread Depth, Measuring
  Note When measuring tread depth, take measurements in the main grooves. Do not take measurements at the tread wear indicator.     Tread depth of a tire must be mea ...

Winter Tires with Speed Symbol V
Table. Refer to → Anchor. The tire industry delivers winter tires with V-rating also. These tires can be applied up to the maximum permissible speed vmax = 240 km/h (149.13 mph) only under certain conditions. ...

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